>>Welcome to the National Archives Know Your
Records program. My name is Andrea Matney. We are broadcasting live with our presenter,
she’s located in Kansas city, Missouri. We’re so pleased that you have joined us today.
For those of you who are here on site, please use the microphones in the aisle when you
ask questions at the end of the program. For those of you who are watching online, you
can also ask questions by using the chat feature. You may also find hyperlinks to the presentation
slides and live captioning. Our live captioning is brought today by Nicole Kochy. For today’s
presentation, Pamela Anderson will highlight records available from the National Archives including those that impacted or improved the domestic lives of American citizens. She joined the National Archives in Kansas City as an archivist in 2010. She spends the
majority of her time working at the National Archives underground facility in Lee’s Summit, Missouri where she provides a full range of reference services. Pam also performs records description, finding aid creation, accessioning and preservation tasks. Prior
to joining the National Archives, Pam held positions at the center for army lessons learned
at fort Leavenworth, Kansas, the Harley-Davidson corporate archive in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and the SC Johnson corporate archives. She has a BA in history from Wartburg college in Waverly, Iowa, and an MA in history, specialization in public history. And a certificate
in museum studies from the university of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. Now for our presentation on diets, textiles and electricity, records that impacted the
domestic lives of Americans. Ladies and gentlemen please join me in welcoming our speaker Pamela
Anderson.>>Hi. Thank you. I’m very excited to have
this opportunity to speak with you today. Let’s go ahead and start on slide seven. I
want to give you a brief introduction of the archives of Kansas city, I’m going to highlight some of the records of government agencies that worked to improve the day to day lives of citizens and give you some information how to request these records. The National Archives in Kansas City has four
locations. Our main facility is downtown Kansas City, Missouri. And the majority of our staff
is located here. And this is our facility that’s open to the public. We have three underground
locations that are not open to the public. But we have records stored there. There is,
we have the facility in northern Kansas city, Missouri, on in Lee’s Summit and one in Lenexa, Kansas as well and we
have staff at all of these facilities. And I happen to be the staff at the Lee’s Summit
facility. The records of the central
plains and the central plains region consists
of Iowa, Nebraska, Missouri and Kansas. But we also have some records from the states
of Minnesota and North Dakota and South Dakota. So all archives deal with the space issue,
as we take in more and more records, we need more and more space to store those records.
And materials. So all archives tend to — are always in a constant need of needing more
space. Here at the National Archives in Kansas City, we’re in the position of having a little
extra space. So actually National Archives offices from across the country, store some
of their records here. And our staff provide reference services on these records.
I do want to note that the records I’m going to be talking about today, I’m sure that there
are other government agencies that dealt with these kind of domestic-type issues. The agencies
that I’ve chosen to talk about today, I’m talking about them because the records are
here and I’m familiar with these records. So don’t walk away thinking that these are
the only agencies that dealt with kind of these domestic issues, because I’m sure there
are many others. Next slide, slide 9.
So to get started today, I wanted to talk about the bureau of human nutrition and home
economics. And this is called record group number 176. A record group is a term that
we use to describe all of the records created by a specific agency. So all of the records
created by the bureau of human nutrition and home economics fall under record group 176.
So we’re talking about the records of the central office of this agency. The records
of the headquarters, so to speak. And these, the textual records for these series are located
here at the national archives at Kansas City, and there are some series of photographic
materials that are available at the National Archives at College Park.
So the dates that this series covers is 1915-1954. However, it’s important to note that the bulk
of the records cover the date span of 1917 to 1941.
Next slide, slide 10. So the primary mission of this agency is to
do a lot of tasks that involve any kind of issue that a homemaker would come across in
her — his or her day-to-day existence. They conducted a lot of research on the nutritional
value of the food, what a good diet consists of. They created new recipes, they tested
recipes, and they also educated the public on healthy eating. They also conducted research
on textiles and clothing, different types of fabric. They studied what fabrics were
being used more than other types of fabric. They conducted a lot of research on the use
of income and household buying. So really studying how Americans are spending their
income and what they’re purchasing with their income. And they also did a lot of work with
household management and equipment. So studying how home makers ran their household and what
kind of equipment and appliances they used to do their day-to-day tasks.
And finally, the agency also produced a lot of publications on the conservation of food
and clothing. And this image that you see up on the slide, and it may be a little difficult
to read on the screen, but it’s a preliminary report published by the bureau in 1927 in
cooperation with the university of Vermont’s extension service and it’s titled the average
clothing expenditures of 86 farm families in Franklin county, Vermont during 1923 to
1924. So it’s kind of an example of the things they looked into and the things that they
studied. Next slide, slide 11.
So one of the things that I love about this record group is the vast amount of raw data
that we have with these records. The bureau of home economics did a lot of studies and
surveys on a variety of different topics. And what’s great about it is that we not only
have the final reports from those studies, but we also have all of the information that
they went out and gathered to put — to come up with their final results.
So some of the things that they looked at were the use of time on farms. They did a
lot of surveys of farm homes, studies of women who lived in towns or on farms. They looked
at employer-employee relationships. They did a very large study of how the consumer purchase
study. And they also looked at war emergence — they did a war emergency food survey during
World War I. And usually these surveys start out with they gather a lot of information
about the individuals living in a specific household. So they went out and they got volunteers
or families or households from across the country who volunteered to take part in this
survey. And they received a packet of forms that they had to fill out. And usually the
first page of these forms is taking information about everybody who lived in the household,
their ages, their gender, whether or not they were employed, et cetera. So, for example,
the war emergency food survey started out by taking all of this information down for
all of the people who lived in the household. And then really broke down for an entire week,
everybody in the household had to keep track of everything they ate. And not just the kind
of food they ate, but how much they ate. So they actually had to weigh everything and
record in ounces how much food was eaten and how much food was left over. So they were
also looking at the amount of food that was wasted. Or at the end of every meal.
And then at the end of the survey, the government looked at all of the data and came up with
recommendations for how to better conserve food and redirect those food resources to
the war effort. So the image that you see here on the screen
is an example of a summary of a week’s worth of data for how Mrs. Pearl Wray of Fremont,
Michigan spent her time during the week of June 10 – June 16 of 1924. this is a different survey of how homemakers divided up their time. There’s three different categories of time
usage here, work, care of self, and leisure activities. And you can see very clearly the
number of hours and minutes she spent doing things like working with livestock and gardening
or how much time she spent sleeping or attending social events and committee meetings and what not. Next slide, slide 12. So here are just some
other examples of data sheets that were sent out for various studies. So the image on the
top left, and then the image on the right side of the screen are both from the study
of consumer purchases. So you can see the upper — the top image on the left, it’s the
first page of this survey where they gather the information of the people living in the
household and then they start in with questions of how much people have spent on specific
things. And you can see on the right they’re talking about how much they’ve spent on their
automobiles and other travel and transportation expenses. And the survey goes on and on in
that vein. And then the image on the bottom left-hand
side is from the survey of a farmer’s standard of living studies.
So while these different surveys and studies at the bureau, bureau undertook, they were
obviously commission the for a specific reason. They’re trying to answer a set of specific
questions. But I really think for scholars and researchers looking at domestic-type issues
during this time period, there’s a lot of great data here that I feel like could really
be useful in someone’s research. Next slide, slide 13.
So another big group of records for the bureau of home economics is there’s several series
of correspondence records. And these records cover just the wide range of activities that
the bureau undertook. And I’ve put just a few examples on this slide that I’ll talk
about. It’s in no way exhaustive of everything that they did, but hopefully this kind of
gives you the idea of some of the other things that the bureau worked on.
So halfway down the top left corner of the screen, eggs at any meal. This is a leaflet
they published and distributed. They had developed several recipes for eggs for various meals
during the day and distributed that to the public.
The next image moving right, I’m sure it’s hard to read on the screen, but the bureau
did a study of the nutritional value of wheat germ. And really looked at what good — what
good came out of people eating more wheat germ. And then they developed several recipes
that used wheat germ and they published this and distributed it to Americans.
The next image to the right is this article I really personally enjoy. It’s called: Is
this housewife worth her salt? It was written by Hildegarde kneeland and it was published
in 1929. What this argue is a fictionalized conversation of fictional couple. It’s a lengthy
article and what this conversation is about is this woman received a job offer. And so
she is trying to convince her husband that she should work outside the home. And the
husband is coming back with all of these economic reasons why it doesn’t make sense for her
to work outside the home. Because he’s going to have to be spending a lot of his money
hiring maids and cooks to do all of the work that she could do just by staying at home.
And as the conversation goes on, she’s explaining why it actually makes a lot of economic sense
for her to take a second job. Because a lot of the things that home makers stayed at home
to do aren’t necessary now. She points out that she doesn’t need to make all of their
clothes by hand because it’s actually cheaper to buy premade clothes in the stores. And
she doesn’t need to do all of the canning because when you break down the expenses it’s
cheaper to buy than it is to can it herself. As this conversation evolves, she eventually
proposes the idea that the husband pay her a salary if she’s going to stay home and manage
the household, he needs to pay her for that work. And she lays out very clearly why it
makes good sense for her to receive a salary for being a housewife. And by the end he agrees
to it. He realizes it makes sense to pay her and split all of the household expenses in
half and they each pay 50% towards the household budget. So the image on the top right of the page is an advertisement for a manufacturer of
washing machines. And this kind of illustrates another aspect of the bureau’s work. They
looked at a lot of appliances to see which ones were most beneficial for helping homemakers.
And they started a program where they actually went out and they bought multiple — many
different models of sewing machines. And then they set up a showroom with all of these sewing
machines in them. And they invited home economics teachers and professors to come and view all
of these sewing machines in one location. And they also, they also invited some housewives
to come and look as well. The idea being that with everything together in one place, these
people could really study the different models that were available, the different features
that were available. And then would go back and educate their students about what was
available in the world of sewing machines. And they have such great success with this
program that they decided to look into other appliances. So this image on the slide here
was acquired during their effort to set this up for washing machines. The Bureau realized
fairly early on they couldn’t afford to buy all of these different models of washing machines.
So they reached out to washing machine manufacturers and asked them to loan them, asked to borrow
a washing machine to put in their showroom. And in the correspondence with the companies,
you see the companies acknowledging yeah, this would be great. We would love this kind
of exposure, especially at the level of having these home economics teachers come in. Because
they are going to turn around and hopefully promote their product to their students.
And another example that I like to mention is there are almost in some ways, maybe unofficially
a consumer watchdog. I came across some records once of some consumers were concerned about
a specific brand of bread that they could buy in the stores. Because there was some
information on the packaging that they just weren’t sure about. So they wrote in to the
bureau and the bureau studied this. And the manufacturer of the bread was actually claiming
that it had some great nutritional value, that I can’t think of off the top of my head.
But the bureau tested the bread and figured out that it didn’t meet what the manufacturer’s
claimed. So the company actually had to modify their packaging. And not make such misinformed
claims about their bread. So I guess one of the things that I really
like about these records is that the issues that you see in these records, a lot of the
same issues that we still talk about today. Everybody is still trying to find what foods
contain the most nutritional value. Everybody is trying to strike a balance with a healthy
diet. You know, when we go out, when we need to purchase a new refrigerator, hopefully
we do our market research and look at the different models to see which one is going
to work best for our household. And also people today are very concerned that the packaging
of their food lists all of the ingredients correctly. And that they want to be aware
of what’s in their food. So another great — so what’s great about
these records is that even though this was quite a while ago, these records are still
really reflective of the same issues that we all deal with today.
Next slide. Slide 14. Moving on I want to talk about rural electrification administration.
This is record group 221. Again I’m talking about the records of the central office of
the agency or the headquarters. The location of the records, most of them are here in the
National Archives of Kansas City, though there are a few number of series at the National
Archives at College Park. And there are some series of photographic materials that are
available through the still pictures branch and the cartographic branch. The dates covered
by these records are 1935 to 1985. Next slide, slight 15.
So the primary mission of the rural electrification administration was much more narrow. In the
early ’30s the government began to realize there was still a large population in this
country of people who didn’t have access to electricity. Because they were living in really
rural areas of the country. So they began doing some work in 1933, sort of kind of informally,
to try to get electricity to these rural areas. And in 1935 they established a temporary agency
to do this work. But then it turned around in 1936 and established a formal permanent
agency. So what this agency did was they provided
lowinterest loans for activities like building electric generating plants and transmission
lines, wiring homes and buildings, and acquiring and installing electrical and plumbing equipment.
So preference for these loans were given to individual farmers, farmers cooperatives and
utility districts. And starting in 1949, they also provided assistance to cooperative telephone
companies so that people in these rural areas were also getting access to telephone lines.
And this agency was abolished in 1994. And it was superceded by the rural utility service.
Next slide, slide 16. Most of the records in this record group deal
with the day-to-day administrative tasks of the agency. But there was a portion of the
agency that really kind of worked in education and outreach. Because if you think about it,
if your house isn’t wired for electricity and you’ve never lived in a place with electricity,
there’s actually a lot you need to do to get everything set up. And there’s a lot of things
that you have to think about that we take for granted this day and age. So at the top
left of the slide is a brochure that the agency published and distributed called a bathroom
for every farm. And this brochure goes on to talk about how now that you’ve got electricity
in your house, it’s a great time to put in an indoor bathroom. And it talks about how
they can find a small closet somewhere in their house or some room that can be converted
and it talks about the type of things that are included in a bathroom, like a sink or
a shower or a bathtub. And talks about the benefits of good water pressure. So the image
in the bottom mid of the screen is a pamphlet they produced and distributed that talks about
the different kind of light fixtures that you need in each room. Again, it’s not something
we really give a whole lot of thought to. It’s kind of second nature to know that you
need a light fixture in your bedroom, but these are things that were brand new to some
of these people. This particular pamphlet is broken down by — it recommends fixtures
for different rooms. And then it also gives ideas for fixtures and lamps in different
price ranges. So hopefully to appeal to a broad scope of people. And at the image at
the top right of the screen is a woman here who talks about how she likes her modern Monday.
Really this whole pamphlet is talking about how Mondays were the day that she did all
of her laundry. But now that she has electricity in her house and now that she has an electric
washing machine, laundry days of so much easier on her. There’s much less actual physical
work that needs to be done. And she can save the time and energy she would have spent doing
laundry to do her other weekly tasks and maybe even some new activities that she didn’t have
time for before. This is a common theme through the promotional material. The idea of modernization.
Modernizing their farms and homes. Some of the other material that you see distributed
by the agency is informational pamphlets on how to — how farmers can build their own
electrical equipment, so they’re not necessarily having to go out and buy everything. They
had an instructional pamphlet on how to build their own lamps, how to build their own egg
coolers. And a lot of the materials you’ll see being distributed to farmers is really
saying like yes, it does cost a few cents for electricity, to use this electricity.
However, the amount of time and energy you’re saving doing some of these tasks can be redirected
to other areas of the farm that might need improvement.
Next slide, slide 17. So like I said before, the majority of the
records in this record group deal with the administrative tasks of getting the electricity
out to all of these outlying areas. And it’s a lot of different correspondence and papers
of certain supervisors within the different departments of the agency. But there are several
series of what they’re calling project case files. So a project, a case file would be
if a loan was given to a specific co-op, then that file would contain all of the paperwork
dealing with that particular co-op. So correspondence between the co-op and the agency, correspondence
between the co-op and the project supervisors that were located in the states and the territories,
and they have other records like approval of expenditures and other matters related
to setting up and equipping the project. And also records dealing with the technical and
legal aspects of getting all this electricity up and running.
Other project case files pertain to the actual loans that were given. They’ll have records
like applications and recommendations and feasibility of the project in question.
One thing I would like to say about these records, is I have had a few requests over
the last few years from people who are hoping to find information about a relative of theirs
in these records. And while it wouldn’t be impossible to find a relative, it’s certainly
not going to be easy. These really aren’t records that lend themselves well to genealogy.
There’s just not that kind of personal data for individuals in these records. In order
to find a relative, you would have to know for sure that they had a very high-ranking
and active role in their local co-op and that their co-op received a loan from the rural
electrification administration. Now, if you are very serious about finding
your relative in these records, I highly suggest that you come and visit us in person and look
through the records yourself. Or you hire an independent researcher to search on your
behalf. Because it’s really going to take a lot of reading of every page to find names
of potential relatives. And it’s really a level of research that we can’t provide for
you. It’s something that you really need to come in and do for yourself. Because it is
such detailed work. Next slide, slide 18.
I wanted to talk to you today very briefly about the records of patent office. The patent
and trademark office is record group 241. And while the mission of this agency wasn’t
dealing specifically with the domestic lives of Americans, they were issuing patents to
inventors who certainly were creating inventions and all kinds of things that are helping domestic
lives. Most of, or all of the administrative records for record group 241 are at the National
Archives at College Park. What I want to talk about today are the actual patent case file
themselves because most of the RG241 records are patent case files for utility patents
and design patents. And patent case files usually contain the initial application for
the patents and the petition and the oath and then correspondence between the inventor
and their legal representation with the patent office. And then also you will find the published
descriptions and drawings. So, for example, the image that’s on this page is the published
drawing of this design. This is a design patent. So whoever designed, came up with this design
for this dress decided that he needed to patent it. And it really looks to me like they put
a hoodie on the back of this dress. Either that or it’s some sort of little cape. But
it looks like a hoodie to me and the person who designed the dress thought it was a significant
enough design that they should get it patented. Next slide, slide 19.
So utility patents, as defined by the patent office are issued for the invention of a new
and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or a new and useful
improvement thereof. And our patent case files span 1836-1993. But it’s really important
to note that the bulk of the series ends in March of 1976. And the patent that you see
on the screen here is for eyeglasses for chickens. It’s a particular favorite of some of us in
our office here. When the glass in the frame of the glasses was actually tinted red and
that calmed the chickens down and made them less likely to attack each other when wearing
these glasses. Next slide, slide 20.
So design patents are issued for a new, original, and ornamental design embodied in or applied
to an article of manufacture and it permits its owner to exclude others from making, using
or selling the design. And the design patent files span from 1843 to 1973. Basically the
difference between a utility patent and a design patent is that a utility patent is
an invention for something new. And a design patent is basically just a new look or design
for something that already exists. The example that I like to use is a chair. So a chair
has already been invented. So you wouldn’t get a utility patent necessarily for a chair.
But if somebody came up with a different design for a chair, then they might take out a design
patent for that chair. So nobody else could produce that design that they’ve come up with.
Next slide, slide 21. So you can use patent case files for some
genealogy purposes. If you have an ancestor that has a patent, most likely their signature
is going to be in the file. They provide you with an opportunity to learn about your ancestor’s
professional and intellectual work, and they may contain some geographical information
about your ancestor. Next slide, slide 22.
So searching for patents has been made really easy thanks to Google. Google has a patent
search engine that contains patents from six different patent offices in six different
countries in the world, the United States being one of them. So if you’re interested
in patents and you want to take a look around, go use Google’s search engine for patents.
And you can use this in any number of ways. You can search by the patent number. Each
patent is assigned a number. And if you know that number, you can search by it. You can
search by the name of the individual or the company. So if there’s some rumor in your
family that great-grandpa may have had a patent at one point but you don’t know anything else
about it, you can search his name and see what comes up. You can also search by the
type of invention. So if you are really interested in the evolution of the egg beater, you could
type in eggbeaters and see what patents come up for that. I had an example for an egg beater
on a previous slide. One thing I would like to point out is that
if you’re interested in contacting us to get copies of a patent case file or to come and
see one in person and you’re using Google, make sure — you need to make sure that the
patent you’re interested in is actually a patent from the United States. Because we
don’t have copies of foreign patents. The easiest way to do that within Google is when
the hits come up from your search, you’ll see I have circled in red at the bottom of
the screen a U.S. patent will have U.S. in front of the patent number and the design
patent will have USD in front of the patent number.
And if you decide you would like to make a request for patent files, please include as
much information in your request as you can. If you are able to find it using Google patent
search, include the patent case number, the name of the inventor, the type of invention,
along with the date of the patents if possible. Next slide. Slide 23.
So I want to talk to you a little about requesting records from us. I strongly encourage you
to start your search using the National Archives catalog. I know there have been plenty of
talks about how to use the catalog so I’m not going to get too much into that because
you can find that information online. But there is one tip that I wanted to share with
you today. I always suggest that you use the advanced search. And when you use the advanced
search, you can actually search by record group number. And I have that field circled
in red on the screen. So, for example, if after today you’ve decided that there’s something
within the bureau of home economics that you want to know more about, you can go ahead,
and using the advanced search, put in 176 under the record group number. And then any
other search terms that you want to search by. And then that ensures that you are only
looking at records within the bureau of home economics. That any of the other hits that
you’re getting are not from a different record group that maybe you’re not interested in
at the moment. So it’s a really great field and it’s something that I use all the time.
I use that search field all of the time here at work. And it’s something that I always
encourage researchers to use too. If they can.
Next slide, slide 24. Another thing about the National Archives
catalog that I wanted to kind of highlight today is the location information within a
series description. So I have a screen shot here of a series description. Unfortunately
I couldn’t get the entire description into one screen shot so I had to break it up here,
and split it in half. But say you’ve searched for bureau of home economics records and you
decide you’re interested in the consumer purchase study records. So you’re looking at this series
description. Make sure you scroll to the bottom. Because at the bottom of the description it
lists where within the National Archives those records are stored. And then it also gives
you the contact information for that location. And I feel it’s important to mention this,
because as I described earlier, some of these series of records for these record groups
are in college park and some of them are here in Kansas City. So by making sure you have
confirmed in the series description the location of the records, you can contact that office
directly. And it’s really going to make — it’s really going to make finding your records
just a lot easier and faster. Next slide, slide 25?
So just some general information on requesting records from us.
We ask if you’re sending e-mails please send it to [email protected]
and I’ve included our physical address on
the screen in case you would like to send a written request through the mail and our
general phone number as well in case you would prefer to talk to someone in person. So our
main location is open to the public from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. We’re
closed on weekends and federal holidays. And if you decide you want to send in a written
request to us, I ask that you include just as much information as you possibly can about
what you’re looking for. If you’ve searched the National Archives catalog ahead of time
and you’ve identified a series that way that you want to see, include that information
so we can find it in the catalog as well. Just give us as much as you know. Now, one
of our archivists might get back to you if we have some additional questions and we can
start a conversation, but the more you start out with providing us, the more it’s going
to expedite us finding what you need. So if you decide you would like to come here
and visit us in person and look at the records yourself, we’re happy to have you come and
visit. We love having researchers come on site here. We ask that you please contact
us before you visit. We certainly do help walk-ins, but it’s really better for you and
it’s better for us if you contact us ahead of time. This way you can talk to an archivist
about your research. They can really you narrow down focus and maybe make some suggestions
of records that you hadn’t thought of before. But it’s really a good idea to know that you’re
coming ahead of time. One of the reasons for that is really because the majority of our
records are stored in our off-site facilities. So if you show up here without letting us
know ahead of time, there’s a really good chance that the records you want to see aren’t
going to be here on site. So we actually request that you submit your request of the records
that you want to see at least two business days in advance. And when you do this, this
gives us the time that we need to pull those records and transport them to our research
room. We really want everything to be ready to go for you when you arrive. So when you
get here bright and early, your first morning of your visit, you can come in and sign in
and look at the research room rules. And then you’re ready to go. We can pull your records
out to you right away and you can go ahead and get started. So it’s a really — contacting
us ahead of time and getting — and allowing us that time to transport your records before
you arrive is really helping you use your time more efficiently. Now, you are welcome
to request additional boxes once you arrive. We will need a little bit of time to transport
and pull them, but you absolutely are able to request more records once you come here.
But we just do like you to already have some on site ready to go so you have something
to be working on while waiting for those additional records to come.
So next slide, slide 26. So that’s everything that I have prepared
to talk to you about today. Do you have any questions for me?
>>Thank you for your presentation. You really captured my imagination. I knew the patent
records were available online but I wasn’t familiar with record group 176, human nutrition
and economics. It looks to me like it captured the imagination of an audience member. Online we had a question that came in. She writes – Is
there a link to the finding aid or the NARA catalog that explains what is available in Record Group 176 and she follows up with another question about is it available. Has any of that collection
been digitized.>>The collection really hasn’t been digitized
yet. We’ll get to it eventually, but as of now, it’s not. There’s not necessarily a link
online that I know of with finding aids for the record group. Like I said, you can always
search the Catalog for using the record group field. Type in 176 and any other search terms you may have. And you can certainly see all of the series descriptions that way. And you
also can feel free to contact us and we can get you additional findings aids and we can
send it directly to the researcher.>>Thank you, Pamela.
Do we have any questions from our on-site audience for Pamela Anderson while we still
have her on line? If not, if you think of a question that occurs to you later on, that’s
fine. You can send it to our e-mail address, [email protected]
Let me check one more time online to see if we have any more questions that have come
in. And it looks like you did a very thorough job. Thank you very much, Pamela, for your
presentation. This recording will remain online on YouTube
and the presentation slides will also be available. So you can always watch it later.
So thank you again for attending. This concludes today’s program.