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Decolonization and Nationalism Triumphant: Crash Course World History #40


Hi, I’m John Green; this is Crash Course
World History and today we’re going to talk about decolonization. The empires European
states formed in the 19th century proved about as stable and long-lasting as Genghis Khan’s
leading to so many of the nation states we know and love today. Yes, I’m looking at
you, Burundi. [singing] DID YOU EVER KNOW YOU’RE MY BURUNDI?
YOU’RE EVERYTHING [theme music] STAN, DON’T CUT TO THE INTRO! I SING LIKE
AN ANGEL! [theme music] So unless you’re over 60– and let’s face
it, Internet, you’re not– you’ve only ever known a world of nation states. But as
we’ve seen from Egypt to Alexander the Great to China to Rome to the Mongols, who, for
once, are not the exception here, [Mongoltage] to the Ottomans and the Americas, empire has long
been the dominant way we’ve organized ourselves politically — or at least the way that
other people have organized us. Mr. Green, Mr. Green! So to them
Star Wars would’ve been, like, a completely different movie. Most of them would’ve been
like, Go Empire! Crush those rebels! Yeah, also they’d be like what is this screen
that displays crisp moving images of events that are not currently occurring? Also, not
to get off-topic, but you never learn what happens AFTER the rebel victory in Star Wars.
And, as as we’ve learned from the French Revolution to the Arab Spring, revolution
is often the easy part. I mean, you think destroying a Death Star is hard? Try negotiating
a trade treaty with Gungans. Right, anyway. So, the late 20th century was not the first
time that empires disintegrated. Rome comes to mind. Also the Persians. And of course
the American Revolution ended one kind of European imperial experiment. But in all those
cases, Empire struck back… heh heh, you see what I did there? I mean, Britain lost
its 13 colonies, but later controlled half of Africa and all of India. And what makes
the recent decolonization so special is that at least so far, no empires have emerged to
replace the ones that fell. And this was largely due to World War II because
on some level, the Allies were fighting to stop Nazi imperialism. Hitler wanted to take
over Central Europe, and Africa, and probably the Middle East– and the Ally defeat of the
Nazis discredited the whole idea of empire. So the English, French, and Americans couldn’t
very well say to the colonial troops who’d fought alongside them, “Thank you so much
for helping us to thwart Germany’s imperialistic ambitions. As a reward, please hand in your
rifle and return to your state of subjugation.” Plus, most of the big colonial powers– especially
France, Britain, and Japan– had been significantly weakened by World War II, by which I mean
that large swaths of them looked like this. So, post-war decolonization happened all over
the place: The British colony that had once been “India” became three independent
nations. By the way, is this Gandhi or is this Ben Kingsley playing Gandhi? In Southeast
Asia, French Indochina became Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam. And the Dutch East Indies became
Indonesia. But of course when we think about decolonization, we mostly think about Africa
going from this to this. So we’re gonna oversimplify here, because
we have to, but decolonization throughout Afro-Eurasia had some similar characteristics.
Because it occurred in the context of the Cold War, many of these new nations had to
choose between socialist and capitalist influences, which shaped their futures. While many of
these new countries eventually adopted some form of democracy, the road there was often
rocky. Also, decolonization often involved violence, usually the overthrow of colonial
elites. But we’ll turn now to the most famous nonviolent–
or supposedly so, anyway– decolonization: that of India. So the story begins, more or
less, in 1885 with the founding of the Indian National Congress. Congress Party leaders
and other nationalists in India were usually from the elite classes. Initially, they didn’t
even demand independence from Britain. But they were interested in creating a modern
Indian nation rather than a return to some ancient pre-colonial form, possibly because
India was– and is–hugely diverse and really only unified into a single state when under
imperial rule by one group or another, whether the Mauryans, the Guptas, the Mughals, or
the British. Okay, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The best known Indian nationalist, Mohandas
K. Gandhi, was a fascinating character. A British educated lawyer born to a wealthy
family, he’s known for making his own clothes, his long fasts, and his battles to alleviate
poverty, improve the rights of women, and achieve a unified Indian independence from
Britain. In terms of decolonization, he stands out for his use of nonviolence and his linking
it to a somewhat mythologized view of Indian history. I mean, after all, there’s plenty
of violence in India’s past and in its heroic epics, but Gandhi managed to hearken back
to a past that used nonviolence to bring change. Gandhi and his compatriot Jawaharlal Nehru
believed that a single India could continue to be ruled by Indian elites and somehow transcend
the tension between the country’s Hindu majority and its sizable Muslim minority. In this they were less practical than their
contemporary, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of the Muslim League who felt– to quote historian
Ainslie Embree– “that the unified India of which the Congress spoke was an artificial
one, created and maintained by British bayonets.” Jinnah proved correct and in 1947 when the
British left, their Indian colony was partitioned into the modern state of India and West and East Pakistan,
the latter of which became Bangladesh in 1971. While it’s easy to congratulate both the
British and the Indian governments on an orderly and nonviolent transfer of power, the reality
of partition was neither orderly nor nonviolent. About 12 million people were displaced as
Hindus in Pakistan moved to India and Muslims in India moved to Pakistan. As people left
their homes, sometimes unwillingly, there was violence, and all tolled as many as half
a million people were killed, more than died in the bloody Indonesian battle for independence.
So while it’s true that the massive protests that forced Britain to end its colonization
of India were nonviolent, the emergence of the independent states involved really wasn’t.
Thanks, Thought Bubble. All this violence devastated Gandhi, whose
lengthy and repeated hunger strikes to end violence had mixed results, and who was eventually
assassinated by a Hindu nationalist who felt that Gandhi was too sympathetic to Muslims.
Oh, it’s time for the open letter? An Open Letter to hunger strikers. But first, let’s see what’s in the secret
compartment today. A cupcake? Stan, this just seems cruel. These
are from Meredith the Intern to celebrate Merebration, the holiday she invented to celebrate
the anniversary of her singleness. Dear hunger strikers, Do you remember earlier
when I said that Gandhi hearkened back to a mythologized Indian past? Well it turns
out that hunger striking in India goes back all the way to, like, the 5th century BCE.
Hunger strikes have been used around the world including British and American suffragettes,
who hunger struck to get the vote. And in pre-Christian Ireland, when you felt wronged
by someone, it was common practice to sit on their doorstep and hunger strike until
your grievance was addressed. And sometimes it even works. I really admire you, hunger
strikers. But I lack the courage of your convictions. Also, this is an amazing cupcake.
Best wishes, John Green Since independence, India has largely been
a success story, although we will talk about the complexity of India’s emerging global
capitalism next week. For now, though, let’s travel east to Indonesia,
a huge nation of over 13,000 islands that has largely been ignored here on Crash Course
World History due to our long-standing bias against islands. Like, we haven’t even mentioned
Greenland on this show. The Greenlanders, of course, haven’t complained because they
don’t have the Internet. So, the Dutch exploited their island colonies
with the system of cultuurstelsel, in which all peasants had to set aside one fifth of
their land to grow cash crops for export to the Netherlands. This accounted for 25% of
the total Dutch national budget and it explains why they have all kinds of fancy buildings
despite technically living underwater. They’re like sea monkeys. This system was rather less
popular in Indonesia, and the Dutch didn’t offer much in exchange. They couldn’t even
defend their colony from the Japanese, who occupied it for most of World War II, during
which time the Japanese furthered the cause of Indonesian nationalism by placing native
Indonesians in more prominent positions of power, including Sukarno, who became Indonesia’s
first prime minister. After the war, the Dutch– with British help–
tried to hold onto their Indonesian colonies with so-called “police actions,” which
went on for more than four years before Indonesia finally won its independence in 1950. Over
in the French colonies of Indochina, so called because they were neither Indian nor Chinese,
things were even more violent. The end of colonization was disastrous in Cambodia, where
the 17-year reign of Norodom Sihanouk gave way to the rise of the Khmer Rouge, which
massacred a stunning 21% of Cambodia’s population between 1975 and 1979. In Vietnam, the French fought communist-led
nationalists, especially Ho Chi Minh from almost the moment World War II ended until
1954, when the French were defeated. And then the Americans learned that there was a land
war available in Asia, so they quickly took over from the French and communists did not
fully control Vietnam until 1975. Despite still being ostensibly communist, Vietnam
now manufactures all kinds of stuff that we like in America, especially sneakers. More about that next week, too, but now to
Egypt. You’ll remember that Egypt bankrupted itself in the 19th century, trying to industrialize
and ever since had been ruled by an Egyptian king who took his orders from the British.
So while technically Egypt had been independent since 1922, it was very dependent independence.
But, that changed in the 1950s, when the king was overthrown by the army. The army commander
who led that coup was Gamal Abdul Nasser, who proved brilliant at playing the US and
the USSR off each other to the benefit of Egypt. Nasser’s was a largely secular nationalism,
and he and his successors saw one of the other anti-imperialistic nationalist forces in Egypt,
the Muslim Brotherhood, as a threat. So once in power, Nasser and the army banned the Muslim
Brotherhood, forcing it underground, where it would disappear and never become an issue
again. Wait, what’s that? …Really? And finally let’s turn to Central and Southern
Africa. One of the most problematic legacies of colonialism was its geography. Colonial
boundaries became redefined as the borders of new nation states, even where those boundaries
were arbitrary or, in some cases, pernicious. The best known example is in Rwanda, where
two very different tribes, the Hutu and the Tutsis were combined into one nation. But,
more generally, the colonizers’ focus on value extraction really hurt these new nations.
Europeans claimed to bring civilization and economic development to their colonies, but
this economic development focused solely on building infrastructure to get resources and
export them. Now whether European powers deliberately sabotaged
development in Africa is a hot-button topic we’re going to stay well away from, but
this much is inarguably true: when the Europeans left, African nations did not have the institutions
necessary to thrive in the post-war industrial world. They had very few schools, for instance,
and even fewer universities. Like, when the Congo achieved independence from Belgium in
1960, there were sixteen college graduates in a country of fourteen million people. Also, in many of these new countries, the
traditional elites had been undermined by imperialism. Most Europeans didn’t rule
their African possessions directly but rather through the proxies of local rulers. And once
the Europeans left, those local rulers, the upper classes, were seen as illegitimate collaborators.
And this meant that a new group of rulers had to rise up to take their place, often
with very little experience in governance. I mean, Zimbabwe’s long-serving dictator
Robert Mugabe was a high school teacher. Let that be a lesson to you. YOUR TEACHERS MAY
HAVE DICTATORIAL AMBITIONS. But most strongmen have emerged, of course, from the military:
Joseph Mobutu seized power in the Congo, which he held from 1965 until his death in 1997.
Idi Amin was military dictator of Uganda from 1971 to 1979. Muammar Gaddafi ruled Libya
from 1977 until 2011. The list goes on, but I don’t want to give the wrong impression
about Africa. Because while the continent does have less
freedom and lower levels of development than other regions in the world, many African nations
show strong and consistent signs of growth despite the challenges of decolonization.
Botswana for instance has gone from 70% literacy to 85% in the past 15 years and has seen steady
GDP growth over 5%. Benin’s economy has grown in each of the past 12 years, which
is better than Europe or the US can say. In 2002, Kenya’s life expectancy was 47; today
it’s 63. Ethiopia’s per capita GDP has doubled over the past 10 years; and Mauritania has
seen its infant mortality rate fall by more than 40%. Now, this progress is spotty and fragile,
but it’s important to note that these nations have existed, on average, about 13 years less
than my dad. Of course, past experience with the fall of empires hasn’t given us cause
for hope, but many citizens of these new nations are seeing real progress. That said, disaster
might lurk around the corner. It’s hard to say. I mean, now more than ever, we’re
trying to tell the story of humans… from inside the story of humans. Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. Our script supervisor is Meredith Danko. The associate producer is Danica Johnson.
The show is written by my high school history teacher, Raoul Meyer, and myself. And our
graphics team is Thought Bubble. Last week’s phrase of the week was “Meatloaf’s Career.”
If you want to guess at this week’s phrase of the week or suggest future ones, you can
do so in comments where you can also ask questions about today’s video that will be answered
by our team of historians. Thanks for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown,
Don’t Forget To Be Awesome.

Stephen Childs

100 Comments

  1. It all boils down to some people want to control other people. Control, control, control.

  2. You do actually see what happens after the first trilogy now, but that doesn't mean you'll like it!

  3. Decolonization is still happening in the Americas. As we indigenous work to overthrow the illegal occupations left by European nations.the indian wars are not over!,✊

  4. Hi from 2019, here we know what happened after the rebel victory in Star Wars 🙂

  5. This is a good video but when I think of colonization, I think of colonization in the Americas…

  6. You are wrong about the Indian independence it was never happened due to non violence that Gandhi was just a foolish and selfish person being an INDIAN we hat that Gandhi our liberation is by violence and our hero is Netaji Subhash Chandra bose

  7. What about the Philippines that the USA colonized into a territory?

  8. It’s hard to defend the dichotomy of colonialism vs. nationalism, seeing as the scramble of Africa was caused by nationalist competition between European states. Heck, Gandhi himself was an anarchist, and the nazi imperialism of wwii that was the cause of decolonization was indisputably a nationalist movement. Furthermore, many African anti-colonialist leaders such as Dr. Nkrumah advocated for a united Africa.

  9. So disgusted when he talks with the cupcake in his mouth

  10. So “nationalism” is a good thing? Interesting in today’s context and how the media have rebranded the word.

  11. Nationalism is the worst thing that could ever happen to the muslim world

  12. 8:17 and the Americans heard there was a land war available 😀 … exclant reason for the Vietnam war

  13. 9:06 … hi i am from the future … guess what happened in Egypt "AGAIN " in 2011 and 2013 … I KNOW crazy world

  14. Ethiopia didn't decolonize because it was never a well-established colony in which there would be the need to decolonize.

  15. did any Harry Potter fans see his shirt during the credits? "Save Ginny":D

  16. If you're here before tomorrow's IB history exam, good luck everyone! 🙂

  17. When you come to the video for a lesson but you find Prequel references: ✅✅✅✅✅✅🤩🤩🤩🤩🤩

  18. My AP test is tomorrow and crash course it pretty cool to review with.

  19. John Green mentions Ethiopia as an example of postcolonial progress… didn't they remain independent throughout the colonial era?

  20. I might sound a bit picky but Why does everyone say Mohandas wrong lol its Mo-han-das theres no exaggeration of the last two syllables.

  21. Even though Bangladesh (at that time East Pakistan) was decolonized by British. It didn't get its independent until 1971 because it was continued to be treated as a colony for west Pakistan.
    The West Pakistan took full advantage of East Pakistan as they planned even before the separation from India. If you want proof Pakistan is a acronym, look it up what it stands for. So even though Bangolie population were far more than Pakistanis they were treated like second class citizens.

    Please elaborate on this part of the history. Because Bangladeshi are the only people on earth who fought to keep their mother tongue.

  22. This is a complex theme, since the border between an Empire and a Multicultural country is hard to specify. Was the USSR an empire, are China or India empires? Is the difference between an empire and a nation state just that you have only one people in one state or by having all citizens being equal?

  23. So the British managed to provided an orderly brexit out of India, but not one out of Europe?

  24. 1:41 you forgot about the U.S , chinese, and French empires still standing and the Soviet empire that fell and the Russian,Kazak and Uzbek empire that replaced it

  25. This guy needs to forget about his dream of doing standup and focus on not being annoying.

  26. I know this is a bit out of date from when this was made but do you think you could do one on the Cold War? Or do you not do these? I’m still confused on the Cold War unit my class is doing. Love your Vids!

  27. We're going to need to oversimplify here

    WAIT A MINUTE
    oversimplify…OverSimplified…
    John Green = OverSimplified confirmed

  28. People have actually speculated that the destruction of both Death Stars (massive investments dealing with multiple industries that would have heavily influenced the galaxy's economy) and the death of Emperor Palpatine would likely have caused a catastrophic market collapse and economic recession that would have given the new republic a very hard start indeed, if not an outright death blow.

  29. GANG GANG
    🇦🇨🇦🇬🇦🇮🇦🇺🇧🇸🇧🇧🇧🇲🇧🇿🇨🇦🇨🇰🇨🇽🇫🇯🇫🇰🇬🇧🇬🇩🇬🇬🇬🇮🇬🇸🇭🇲🇮🇲🇮🇴🇯🇲🇯🇪🇰🇾🇱🇨🇱🇰🇲🇸🇳🇺🇳🇿🇵🇬🇵🇳🇸🇧🇸🇭🇹🇦🇹🇨🇹🇰🇹🇻🇻🇨🇻🇬

  30. Totally rubbish… Never independence comes in peace. Lot of suffering and lives were given and taken for independence

  31. Hmm – no empires .. I wonder wod the Tibetans agree with you? How about those independent parts of India which were forceably incorporated in the new country. Not to mention Crimea, parts of Georgia …

  32. Why do African countires need schools, universities, roads etc? They had been living without these things before colonisation so why did they need them post colonisation? Perhaps they could have spent some of their effort in developing their infrastructure like happened in India?

  33. Normally John Green talks a lot of sense and seems to understand a lot of the detail of history. But his understanding of empire is ignorant.
    First of all, not all empires are the same. That should be obvious. But he doesn’t even understand that colonial people choosing to fight for their masters is more likely to be as a mercenary rather than sentiment or duty. Some Indians fought for the Japanese.
    But in some ways even more serious is his judging the past by the standards of the day. That is stupid.
    And the British were not forced to leave India. To suggest otherwise displays gross ignorance. The British were desperate to get out because India was costing Britain huge amounts of money they no longer had, having lost everything in the war.

  34. Any other The 100 fans that thinks Pike was actually inspired in Mugabe?

  35. Indonesia's first prime minister was Sutan Sjahrir, Soekarno was the first president.

  36. My friend told me using the word “discovered” (especially finding land that is already populated) is racism. People are still gonna say it though, and we know what they mean.
    But it seems in most cases “invaded” is a better term

  37. What do you mean no empire emerged after the fall of the western colonial empires? The Soviet empire expanded dramatically at the end of world war two. Also after world war two the world saw the formation of the people's republic of China and the spread of communism in southeast Asia. The Soviet union attempted to spread communism to Africa, Latin america, central Europe, Japan, the middle east, and Afghanistan. Communist China tried to spread communism to south Korea, the Philippines, south east Asia, Nepal, and even India. The USSR and the PRC were the empires that emerged after world war two.

  38. Is anyone else a bit troubled by how chipper John Green is when talking about colonialism?

  39. No empires have continued to imperialize? What about through financial subjugation? This is an outdated concept of imperialism.

  40. And Nigeria??? It even has its own space program, it launches stalites

  41. Umm, did you just say India's freedom movement was non Violent?? Well it was neither non violent nor non violence brought the freedom. Have you ever heard of the Jalianwalabagh Massacre? Or Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose, Uprising and death of Bhagat Singh, Chittagong Armory Raid by Surya Sen, Secret societies like Jugantar and Anushilan Samiti? Or the bengal famine of 43 which was also a passive violence? Please do give a thought.

  42. Hungry strike more termed as satyagraha.. Means fighting for truth with weapon called non violence…!
    Love u mahatma Gandhi

  43. 1:59:00 lies, they were not against empire they just wanted to keep their share ,Berlin & Brussles conference

  44. I think ghandi is really over idealized. He was a good man who helped his country, but he achieved all of that mostly thanks to Indian and Muslim soldiers sacrificed in both world wars and the overall apathy of the west. Not to mention Soviets and Americans pushing for decolonization and the British publics resistance towards war so soon after WW2.

  45. 1:27

    Well, there have been multiple Persian Empires throughout history, it depends on the one you are looking for.

  46. I know this video is 6 years old and all, but you do realize that America qualifies as an empire, right. We have occupied territories and everything.

  47. Hutu and Tutsi are most probably not two separate ethnicities, but different social classes. Belgian colonialists were very keen on insisting that they are different races and used Tutsis to control Hutus, but the genetic evidence is not really there, as far I'm concerned. Having said that Rwanda's problems, while definitely worsened by colonialism, were caused because of the borders. The Hutu/Tutsi social division predated colonialism and would probably end violently one way or another. Would it be less violent without the colonization? Yes, very possible. But to use Rwanda as an example of poor border policies of colonialists is not very correct. Sudan (which since then split into South Sudan, which it itself still experiences problems) or Nigeria would have been better examples.

  48. Small mistake in 2:28. Actually, the Indian Empire was divided into 2 states; India and Pakistan. The third state of Bangladesh was formed much later.

  49. Actually america did say "Thank you so much for helping us thwart Germany's imperialistic ambitions, as a reward; please hand in your rifle and return to a state of subjugation." to blacks…

    Literally one of instigating factors for the civil rights movement.

  50. Gandhi never got India her freedom , it was because of Netaji Bose and his INA ! 🇮🇳

  51. Why did you miss countries like uae, qatar, kuwait etc: which became better than their colonisers?

  52. I must say that your understanding of the history of the sub continent is really flawed and i've noticed that in some of your other videos too which were about India. Just 90 years before which was in 1857 there was a war against the British known as the "First War of Independence" both Hindus and muslims fought as brothers to place a Mughal muslim rules (Bahadur Shah Jafar) on the throne. This alarmed the British and led to the policy of 'Divide and Rule' separate electorates were formed for hindu as well as Muslim voters. A divide was created between hindus and muslims so as to weaken the Independence movement. British had decided in their secret documents during late 30's to divide the subcontinent in 2 to maintain its influence and also preventing Soviets from making inroads. Muslim league led a movement for Pakistan creation of a separate homeland for muslims. The western part of the country became an Islamic nation and all hindu minorities were either Killed or expelled. The Other half, became a Secular republic of India. And guess what there were more muslims in India than there were in Pakistan. So one country broke into two, one for muslims and the other one for everyone including muslims. So Muslims got 2 countries while hindus got none. And to top it all, All hindus oops i'm sorry 'Infidels' were finished off from Pakistan. Now that's called a fair deal. Thanks to your more pragmatic Mohm. Ali Jinnah who by the way was not even a muslim but an Atheist. It was a power grab of the classic kind.

  53. its was subash Chandra bose who led India to freedom, read royal navy rebellion of 1946 and gandi non violence was massive but won't be effective, countless people fight,and yeah after royal navy rebellion ,british left with no soldier and have no choice but to let India go

  54. "These cupcakes were made by Meredith the intern to celebrate Mere-bration, the holiday she invented to celebrate the anniversary of her single-ness".

    A. That is the most savage burn on your ex I have ever seen. All the memes and posts can go home, because that takes the cupcake.

    B. I haven't been single for 5 years, I'm simply celebrating my fifth Tom-adan.

  55. If you talk French colonisation in Africa you talk Algeria, too bad you missed that ,their revolution to independence is one of the greatest in history

  56. 11:22 I get goosebumps whenever Botswana is mentioned anywhere because I'm convinced 90% of the world population doesn't know who we are

  57. Jesus, your intro is so Zionist lame, I couldn't even make it to your prose.

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